There is a good evidence to show that adult obesity is associated with increased risks of the following health problems:
- Obesity is the second cause of preventable death in the world after smoking.
Metabolic and endocrine systems
- Type 2 diabetes.
- High total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides with speeding up atherosclerosis.
- Metabolic syndrome, which is a combination of disorders including high blood glucose, high blood pressure and high cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
- Hypertension (high blood pressure), which is itself a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke and renal failure.
- Coronary heart disease and stroke.
- Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
- Several cancers, including endometrial, breast and colon cancers.
Reproductive and urological problems
- Stress incontinence in women.
- Menstrual abnormalities, polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility.
- Erectile dysfunction in men.
- Sleep apnea (interruptions to breathing while asleep) and other respiratory problems such as asthma.
Gastrointestinal and liver disease
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
- Gastro-esophageal reflux.
- Gall stones.
- Strain on the body's joints, especially the knees, with increased risk of osteoarthritis.
- Low back pain.
Psychological and social problems
- Stress, low self-esteem, social disadvantage, depression and reduced libido.