Obesity is the second cause of preventable death in the world after smoking.

Metabolic and endocrine systems

  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • High total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides with speeding up atherosclerosis.
  • Metabolic syndrome, which is a combination of disorders including high blood glucose, high blood pressure and high cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
  • Gout.

Circulatory system

Hypertension (high blood pressure), which is itself a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke and renal failure.

Coronary heart disease and stroke.

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.


Several cancers, including endometrial, breast and colon cancers.

Reproductive and urological problems

Stress incontinence in women.

Menstrual abnormalities, polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility.

Erectile dysfunction in men.

Respiratory problem

Sleep apnea (interruptions to breathing while asleep) and other respiratory problems such as asthma.

Gastrointestinal and liver disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Gastro-esophageal reflux.

Gall stones.

Musculoskeletal system

Strain on the body’s joints, especially the knees, with increased risk of osteoarthritis.

Low back pain.

Psychological and social problems


Stress, low self-esteem, social disadvantage, depression and reduced libido.